Re-posting my work from reddit:
so
yesterday i spent about 8 hours punching things without a weapon then
attacking them with a weapon, recording my highest and lowest values and
comparing them to my stats and damage via other means i did this on 5
different monsters with different levels from 1-30 this is what i got:

Actual damage = (atk+skill atk+ atk bonuses – def)
if crit multiply by 1.5 and add crit attack value from character sheet
then multiply by element/type mod (slash/stab/hit)
then add “additional damage” things like concentrate or from ” bonus attack damage” stats.

the difference between attack and “bonus attack damage” is atk
appears on your sheet and goes in the beginning and gets multiplied,
bonus attack damage just adds onto the final number and is never
multiplied, but i think it also never decreases… i dont have
concentrate to fully test ill get one rank in it i guess and test out
for sure…

this formula works from 1-30 punching if i equip a +2 2handsword and
hit things weak vs slashing though it seems to be off by +/- 1-5% so im
thinking the way i do def isn’t correct, it’s probably not a entirely
flat value maybe? or maybe theres weapon damage modifiers for size? iirc
in RO 2 hand swords did more damage to small? idk that could explain
the variance. either that or weapon attack can range out of its
displayed range… idk its hard to say without knowing exactly how
defense works.

EDIT

So with some testing Catar Stroke deviates from the normal formula
similar to how energy bolt does. Do all the math then multiply by 1.1.

Also the attribute for catar stroke that deals 50% of your physical
on pushed enemies is EXACTLY that, you do your atk/2 BUT, and here’s the
most interesting part, this damage IGNORES DEFENSE. I hit a level 108
enemy at 36 with 97 attack with catar did 1 damage, knocked it back, and
it took 48 damage. The implications of this def ignoring value are
fairly intrigueing

Concentrate adds FLAT damage on the end that never gets multiplied,
so if you have +5 additional damage do the whole calculation (including
crits) then slap on +5 at the end. Seems fairly pathetic… and if the
monsters def is over your attack it reduces concentrate’s damage as
well. So if your formula adds up to -5 you do “0” damage but in the case
of 0 you always round up to 1 for damage

Thrust’s attribute to add additional hits 5% of the time adds (+12.5% final damage) two hits so essentially 25% damage

End Edit

magic seems to work the same, magic amplfication being similar to
crit atk bonus but random. ranging from 15%~100% the mamp value
so something like:

(matk+skillmatk)-mdef + 15%~100% mamp

this was tested much less so it could potentally be 0%-100%… also
mdef could be at the end and amp could be inside. don’t have a magic
class so i cant be entirely sure, just had someone do about 20 minutes
of data gathering for me and thats what the results appear to show…

there are small margins of error with equipment on the formulas but
they seem to work consistently without weapons. I dunno if def has more
variables or if weapons do.

Edit: new formula 8/8/2015 8:38 pm

Extensively tested wizard’s energy bolt. figured out energy bolt is:

(matk+skillatk-mdef)*1.5 if you add up both hits.

it only APPEARS random cause the damage splits randomly into two
hits. it looks like the first hit is always bigger than the second
unless you lag. out of like 200 casts only 2 appeared in reverse order.
so its probably like 85%(matk+skillatk-def) then 35% for the second hit
with something like 30% randomly split between the two?

There appears to be 0% error in this formula if you make sure to remove all rounding errors at the proper places.

End Edit

If you find these inaccuracies please submit the following:

first step, take off all gear that gives anything other than
defense/evasion. so anything with dex/str/int, physical/magical attack,
physical/magical damage, aoe ratio, crit atk, block penetration, magic
amplification, and maybe even accuracy for good measure. make sure to
check all your armor and accessories.

level and name of monster
attack power without a weapon
crit atk/magic amp with your weapon off
how much damage you deal without a weapon (punch or cast something)
crit damage without a weapon
damage without a weapon with a buff (include buff’s description)
crit damage without a weapon with buff
skill damage without a weapon
same as above but when crit
skill damage without a weapon with a buff (include buff’s description)
same as above but when crit
skill’s damage type (hit/slash/stab/element)
ALL the above info WITH a weapon and include weapon description (attack value, upgrade, bonus stats)
Make sure with a weapon to record damage values for like 30 minutes and submit them formatted like this:

low = 50
high = 100
low crit = 75
high crit = 150

then if you want include all the raw data below that so if you did
1000 attacks just give me all 1000 results, maybe for brevity write down
each value that happens and just the number it happened so above
example again

50 x 2
61 x 4
73 x 10
80 x 20
90 x 10
100 x 7

something like this would allow me to narrow down

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