I’m making this guide because I couldn’t find a detailed recent guide on how to do this most effectively. It is comprised of a few guides I read as well as things I figured out along the way. I finished this on my 2nd attempt in 3h 44m for the achievement today (2/15/21). I hope it helps!
1.) Play through the storyline until unlocking the Anomaly. Along the way try to earn as many nanites as you can. Scan everything and upload your discoveries, unlock easy milestones to get nanites from Aries, etc. You will need around 1k min but the more you get the more it will help.
2.) Purchase the Cadmium Drive and Emeril Drive. You will need both later, don’t install them just yet.
3.) Start earning units.This step is semi-optional but will speed up your time a lot. Find planets with ancient bones and salvageable scrap for fast units. Ancient bones is my preference netting a few million units in around half an hour.
4.) Buy an explorer class ship (bug looking ones). This step is also optional but these ships come standard with a hyperdrive upgrade. Just wait around in space stations until one you like shows up. A or S class with lower inventory is ideal because you can get those for 2m units or less.
5.) Start collecting resources. You will need a lot of chromatic metal (500-1k), ferrite dust (1k+), condensed carbon (400+), and oxygen (500+). The more the better. These are the ingredients for hyperdrive cores. You will also need extra copper/cadmium, oxygen/carbon, cobalt/dihydrogen, and sodium to charge a portal later.
6.) Buy S Class hyperdrive upgrades from merchants. They increase your jump range and warp fuel efficiency. My ship had 200% efficiency and a 500ly range. This was sufficient imo but you can go higher if you want. This used 7% of my fuel per jump.
7.) Install your Cadmium and Emeril drives on your explorer ship.
8.) Find a Travelers Grave. You can either stumble across one while working on other steps or find a traveller in a space station that you can give 100 nanites to for a location for one. You only need to find one of these and unlock the first glyph.
9.) Find a portal. Try collecting nav data along the other steps to make this one easier. Use the nav data to buy alien artifact maps and use them until you get one for an alien monolith. Go to the monolith and answer the riddle, there are plenty of guides out there that give correct answers so make sure to find the right answer before guessing to save yourself time. After you answer correctly you can activate the monolith again to locate a portal.
10.) Make sure you have a full hyperdrive and at least 5 spare cores if not more.
11.) Go to the portal and activate it. After activation use the first glyph unlocked for the full sequence. This will port you to a system 5k-6k ly away from the center.
12.) Head to the center. If you did everything right up until this point all you have to do is keep warping until you reach the closest system to the center. For me this system was about 3k ly away from the center. Once you reach this system charge your hyperdrive back to full and then access the map again. To get to the center (on console, sorry don’t know this step for PC), with the current system selected, hold the right stick forward until you here a beep then hold A(xbox)/X(ps) until it gives you the option to go to the center and your done!
A few bonus tips to not die:
Avoid ANY planet that is extreme, has aggressive animals, or aggressive sentinels. Don’t even push it, my first attempt was wiped by and aggressive animal while I was hiding underground from a storm 😒.
Stock up on as much sodium and oxygen as you can carry along the way. Your protection systems fall a lot quicker on Perma-Death.
Watch for fall damage, its a lot more brutal and your jet pack isn’t as effective.
I personally noticed a lot more sentinels in this mode so be careful farming.
If anyone has any other tips feel free to post!